The Penn State topic is way too complicated to sort out in a short email. (It may never be fully understood). At one time I worked for a large construction company that had a good safety culture, yet when there was an issue of challenging a client on unsafe procedures the construction company always backed down.
I try to stay abreast of the safety profession by reading several magazines and websites monthly. In addition, I am fortunate to talk to a number of highly skilled safety mangers on a frequent basis and I blatantly pick their brains as much as possible.
The idea for this discussion came about a few months back when I was talking with a fellow safety professional. He has been a Corporate Safety Director and a Global Safety Director for several years and he told me that he would like to be a VP of Safety before he retires.