I discovered these factors that influence behavioral ethics in the course of my doctoral research, when I analyzed 150 different derailments within organizations. Since then, these factors have been tested in various studies.
The Penn State topic is way too complicated to sort out in a short email. (It may never be fully understood). At one time I worked for a large construction company that had a good safety culture, yet when there was an issue of challenging a client on unsafe procedures the construction company always backed down.
I'm a proud PSU graduate and currently live in the community. When you all speak of the culture, it's like we are being talked about like we are objects inside of a fishbowl stereotyped by the bad actions of a few, instead of as individual people.