Like fit, footwear insulation is an extremely individualized matter, with choices depending on where you’re working, the length of exposure, metabolism, and of course, design preference.

Charts that correlate outdoor temperatures to levels of insulation can be a helpful starting point, but remember, insulation is a direct function of activity. Insulation, which is trapped air that blocks the passage of hot and cool air, can just as easily cause a very active foot to become sweaty — and therefore wet and cold — if there is too much of it. 3M, the producer of Thinsulate™ insulation, has some general rules of thumb listed on its website: http://solutions.3m.com/wps/portal/3M/en_US/Thinsulate_Insulation/Homepage

Waterproof: mother knows best
Mothers always steer children away from ever-tempting puddles. Moms universally understand a dry foot is a warm foot. When shopping for cold weather work footwear, waterproof should become a personal requirement even if it’s not an on-the-job requirement.

As with insulation, there are several measures of waterproof ability available in work boots. Some key features to look for: the material of the upper, the construction, and of course, the waterproof membrane.

Most work footwear has a leather upper because it is breathable, comfortable, and conforms to your foot. Waterproof leathers as a rule will possess higher oil content then their non-waterproof counterparts. Another consideration is construction. Though often a matter of style preference, a boot in which the sole is attached using a Goodyear welt construction (stitched to the upper and insole of the shoe) opposed to a sole that is cemented to the upper could provide additional distance and layers of insulation between the foot and a cold surface. Finally, be sure the boot is completely lined with a high-quality, waterproof membrane.

Unsung heroes of warm feet
Protective toe– No matter the material used in the protective toe, the key to its warmth contribution is the shape of the toe cap as it relates to the wearer’s foot. Often a narrow or shallow mold can cause more contact between the foot and all surfaces of the boot — and the elements beyond it. Conversely, a roomier mold can provide added airflow around the toes which can promote warmth.

Gusseted tongue– A gusseted tongue is one that is joined to the body of the boot by a fold of material along each side (as opposed to only along the bottom,) preventing dirt and debris (and cold air) from entering. Make certain the gusset is also protected by the waterproof membrane.

Footbed– Look for a high quality footbed (insole) material such as closed-cell polyurethane. Quality footbeds, especially those that are thicker in structure, benefit warmth by adding that much more protection between your foot and the ground.

Outsole–Your outsole can play a key role in the warmth of your protective footwear. Follow the above footbed philosophy: the heavier and more rugged the outsole, the more distance between your feet and cold ground. Try to find self-cleaning lugs, as they will prevent the buildup of snow, ice, and mud.