Researchers at the National institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have created a guide to teach miners the basics of operating a refuge chamber in the event of a mine emergency.

"How to Operate a Refuge Chamber: A Quick Start Guide" is intended for group-based training and was created using Microsoft PowerPoint. It is designed to be used as a template for mine instructors to modify based on the refuge chambers used at their mine.

According to NIOSH, refuge chambers (also called rescue or refuge shelters) are portable chambers that inflate from steel skids and contain water, food, toilet facilities and breathable air. Made either of steel or tent material, they have a seal that protects occupants from the outside environment for at least 96 hours.

Information on the guide can be found at: www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/pubs/pubreference/outputid3507.htm .