Five studies conducted in Philadelphia, Atlanta, Connecticut, Miami, and Pittsburgh all show that first responders — firefighters, emergency medical technicians, paramedics — face low risks for Hepatitis C, according to the Centers for Disease Control.

The CDC says that the average risk for infection is 1.8 percent, and that transmission rarely occurs from mucous membrane exposures to blood. Based on these findings, the CDC does not recommend routine Hepatitis C testing of first responders unless they have a history indicating increased risk of infection. These risks include blood transfusions made prior to July, 1992, and injection drug use.